• assess the situation;
  • do not put yourself in danger;
  • make the area safe;
  • assess all casualties and attend first to any unconscious casualties;
  • send for help, do not delay;
  • follow the advice given below -
Severe bleeding
  • apply direct pressure to the wound;
  • raise and support the injured part (unless broken);
  • apply a dressing and bandage firmly in place.
Broken bones and spinal injuries

If a broken bone or spinal injury is suspected, obtain expert help. Do not move casualties unless they are in immediate danger

Burns / Chemical injuries

Burns can be serious so if in doubt, seek medical help. Cool the part of the body affected with cold water until pain is relieved. Thorough cooling may take 10 minutes or more, but this must not delay taking the casualty to hospital. Certain chemicals may seriously irritate or damage the skin. Avoid contaminating yourself with the chemical. Treat in the same way as for other burns. Continue treatment even on the way to hospital, if necessary.

Remove any contaminated clothing, which is not stuck to the skin.


Eye injuries

All eye injuries are potentially serious. If there is something in the eye, wash out the eye with clean water or sterile fluid from a sealed container, to remove loose material. Do not attempt to remove anything that is embedded in the eye. If chemicals are involved, flush the eye with water or sterile fluid for at least 10-15 minutes, while gently holding the eyelids open. Ask the casualty to hold a pad over the injured eye and send to hospital.

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